Wazaif and Naqash

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Zakaat

Zakat (Arabic: زكاة‎‎ zakāt, “that which purifies” also Zakat al-mal زكاة المال, “zakat on wealth”,or “Zakah” is a form of alms-giving treated in Islam as a religious obligation or tax, which, by Quranic ranking, is next after prayer (salat) in importance.

As one of the Five Pillars of Islam, zakat is a religious obligation for all Muslims who meet the necessary criteria of wealth. It is not a charitable contribution, and is considered to be a tax, or obligatory alms. The payment and disputes on zakat have played a major role in the history of Islam, notably during the Ridda wars.

Zakat is based on income and the value of all of one’s possessions. It is customarily 2.5% (or 1/40th) of a Muslim’s total savings and wealth above a minimum amount known as nisab, but Islamic scholars differ on how much nisab is and other aspects of zakat. The collected amount is paid first to zakat collectors, and then to poor Muslims, to new converts to Islam, to Islamic clergy, and others.

Today, in most Muslim-majority countries, zakat contributions are voluntary, while in a handful (Libya, Malaysia, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Yemen), zakat is mandated and collected by the state.

Shias, unlike Sunnis, have traditionally regarded zakat as a private and voluntary decision, and they give zakat to imam-sponsored rather than state-sponsored collectors.

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Hadith & Sunnah

Sunnah is a saying attributed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad (a hadith), namely I have left among you two matters by holding fast to which, you shall never be misguided: the Book of God and my Sunna. It is an often quoted saying regarding the sources of Islam. The authenticity of this hadith is rejected by many Shi’a. The concept itself is not rejected, as most Muslims hold that Islam is derived from two sources: one being infallible and containing compressed information — the Qur’an —and another being a detailed explanation of the everyday application of the principles established in the Qur’an: The Sunnah, or the living example of Muhammad.

Hadith literature refers to the oral tradition about the words and deeds (Sunnah) of Muhammad. The statement that Islam has these two sources has been attributed to Muhammad. The Sunni Muslims accept this attribution as sahih (authentic) and hence a hadith; whereas the Shi’a Muslims reject this as being mawdoo (fabricated), and not a separate hadith, arguing that nowhere is it recorded in the Six Authentic Books of the Sunni’s (Sahih Sitta). The hadith in the Six Authentic Books are generally accept as authentic throughout Islam.

The Qur’an and Sunnah hadith is reported in other books as having been said during Muhammad’s Farewell Sermon atop Mount Arafat after his Last Pilgrimage.(e.g. Malik Muwatta)

Slightly varied versions are cited in many Sunni hadith works. Among those are:

al-Jami’ li-Akhlaq al-Rawi by Al-Khatib

Sunan al-Daraqutni

Sira al-Nabawiyyah by Ibn Hisham

John Esposito explains the importance of the Hadith in Islam: “the Prophet Muhammad is seen as the living Quran, the embodiment of God’s will in his behavior and words. Sunni Muslims … take their name from the sunnah, meaning those who follow the example of the Prophet”. Prof. Fatih Okumus refers to Muhammad as “the walking Qur’an,” with the Sunnah giving an example to follow.

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Kalimas

The Six Kalimas (from Arabic كلمة kalimah “word”) in Islam in South Asia are six significant parts of one’s religious belief, mostly taken from hadiths (in some traditions, five phrases, then known as the five kalimas).

The first of them, known as the ”kalimat tayyibah or “word of purity”, second is called the shahada, third “tamjeed”, fourth “tawheed”, fifth “istighfar” and sixth is called “radde kufr”. Recitation of the six kalimas is taught in Pakistan and other Muslim countries’ madrasas, but it is rare for average Pakistani Muslims to be able to recite them all.Conversely, religious leaders are expected to be able to recite them, and the Pakistani Ministry of Religious Affairs in one instance earned political criticism for appointing as head of its Council of Islamic Ideology a man who was not able to recite them. Riaz (2008) records memorization of the six kalimas as part of the syllabus of grade 3 (darja saum) education (i.e. taught in the third year of a five-year course) at the Deobandi school Darul Uloom Deoband in Uttar Pradesh, India.

 

  1. Kalimah Tayyibah kalimat aṭ-ṭaiyibah (Word of Purity)

لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا الله مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ الله

‘lā ilāha illā -llāh, muḥammadur rasūlu -llāh

There is no god but Allah, [and] Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.

  1. Kalimah Shahadah kalimat ash-shahādah (Word of Evidence)

أَشْهَدُ أنْ لا إلَٰهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيْكَ لَهُ وَأشْهَدُ أنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ About this sound listen (help·info) The text is from the 9th-century Sahih al-Bukhari, which attributes it to Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, who upon hearing the muezzin is said to have uttered:

Ašhadu an lā ilāha illā-llāh waḥdahu lā šarīka lahu, wa ašhadu anna muḥammadan ʿabduhu wa rasūluhu.

I bear witness that (there is) no god except Allah; One is He, no partner hath He, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His Servant and Messenger.

  1. Kalimah Tamjeed kalimat at-tamjīd (Word of Majesty)[citation needed]

سُبْحَان اللهِ وَالْحَمْدُلِلّهِ وَلا إِلهَ إِلّااللّهُ وَاللّهُ أكْبَرُ وَلا حَوْلَ وَلاَ قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِاللّهِ الْعَلِيِّ الْعَظِيْمAbout this sound listen (help·info)

Subḥāna-llāhi, wa-l-ḥamdu li-llāhi, wa lā ilāha illā-llāhu, Wa-llāhu akbar, Wa lā ḥawla wa lā quwwata illā bi-llāhi-l-ʿalīyyi-l-ʿaẓīm

Exalted is Allah, and praise be to Allah, and there is no deity except Allah, and Allah is the Greatest. And there is no might nor power except in Allah, the Most High, the Most Great.

  1. Kalimah Tawheed kalimat at-tawḥīd (Word of Oneness)[citation needed]

لَآ اِلٰهَ اِلَّا اللهُ وَحْدَهٗ لَا شَرِيْكَ لَهٗ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَ لَهُ الْحَمْدُ يُحْىٖ وَ يُمِيْتُ وَ هُوَحَیٌّ لَّا يَمُوْتُ اَبَدًا اَبَدًاؕ ذُو الْجَلَالِ وَالْاِكْرَامِؕ بِيَدِهِ الْخَيْرُؕ وَهُوَ عَلٰى كُلِّ شیْ ٍٔ قَدِیْرٌؕ About this sound listen (help·info)

lā ilāha illā-llāhu waḥdahu lā sharīka lahu lahu l-mulku wa lahu l-ḥamdu yuḥyi wa yumītu wa huwa ḥayyu lā yamūtu abadan abadan dhu l-jalāli wa l-ʾikrām biyadihi-l khayr wa-huwa ʿala-kulli shayʾin qadīr

“(There is) no god except Allah – One is He, no partners hath He. His is the Dominion, and His is the Praise. He gives life and causes death, and He is Living, who will not die, never. He of Majesty and Munificence. Within His Hand is (all) good. And He is, upon everything, Able (to exert His Will).”

  1. Kalimah Istighfar (Word of Penitence)[citation needed]

اَسْتَغْفِرُ اللهَ رَبِّىْ مِنْ كُلِّ ذَنْۢبٍ اَذْنَبْتُهٗ عَمَدًا اَوْ خَطَا ًٔ سِرًّا اَوْ عَلَانِيَةً وَّاَتُوْبُ اِلَيْهِ مِنَ الذَّنْۢبِ الَّذِیْٓ اَعْلَمُ وَ مِنَ الذَّنْۢبِ الَّذِىْ لَآ اَعْلَمُ اِنَّكَ اَنْتَ عَلَّامُ الْغُيُوْبِ وَ سَتَّارُ الْعُيُوْبِ و َغَفَّارُ الذُّنُوْبِ وَ لَا حَوْلَ وَلَا قُوَّةَ اِلَّا بِاللهِ الْعَلِىِّ الْعَظِيْمِؕ About this sound listen (help·info)

astaghfiru-llāha rabbī min kulli dhanbin adnabtuhu ʿamadan ʾaw khaṭāʾan sirran ʾaw ʿalāniyyataw wa atūbu ʾilayhi minal dhanbi-lladhī aʿlamu wa minal dhanbi-lladhī lā aʿlamu innaka ʾanta ʿallāmul-ghuyūbi wa sattārul-ʿuyūbi wa ghaffāru dhunūbi wa lā ḥawla wa lā quwwata illā billāhil-ʿalīyyil-ʿaẓīm.

“I seek forgiveness from Allah, my Lord, from every sin I committed knowingly or unknowingly, secretly or openly, and I turn towards Him from the sin that I know and from the sin that I do not know. Certainly You, You (are) the knower of the hidden things and the Concealer (of) the mistakes and the Forgiver (of) the sins. And (there is) no power and no strength except from Allah, the Most High, the Most Great”.

  1. Kalima Radde Kufr (“Word of Rejection of Disbelief”)[citation needed]

اَللّٰهُمَّ اِنِّیْٓ اَعُوْذُ بِكَ مِنْ اَنْ اُشْرِكَ بِكَ شَيْئًا وَّاَنَآ اَعْلَمُ بِهٖ وَ اَسْتَغْفِرُكَ لِمَا لَآ اَعْلَمُ بِهٖ تُبْتُ عَنْهُ وَ تَبَرَّأْتُ مِنَ الْكُفْرِ وَ الشِّرْكِ وَ الْكِذْبِ وَ الْغِيْبَةِ وَ الْبِدْعَةِ وَ النَّمِيْمَةِ وَ الْفَوَاحِشِ وَ الْبُهْتَانِ وَ الْمَعَاصِىْ كُلِّهَا وَ اَسْلَمْتُ وَ اَقُوْلُ لَآ اِلٰهَ اِلَّا اللهُ مُحَمَّدٌ رَّسُوْلُ اللهِؕ

Allāhumma innī aʿūḏu bika min an ušrika bika šayʾaw-wwa-anā aʿlamu bihi wa-staġfiruka limā lā aʿlamu bihi tubtu ʿanhu wa tabarra’tu mina-l-kufri wa-š-širki wa-l-kiḏhbi wa-l-ġībati wa-l-bidʿati wa-nnamīmati wa-l-fawāḥiši wa-l-buhtāni wa-l-maʿāṣī kullihā wa aslamtu wa aqūlu lā ilāha illā-llāhu Muḥammadu-r-rasūlu llāh.

” O Allah! I seek protection in You from that I should not join any partner with You and I have knowledge of it. I seek Your forgiveness from that which I do not know. I repent from it (ignorance) and I reject disbelief and joining partners with You and of falsehood and slandering and innovation in religion and tell-tales and evil deeds and the blame and the disobedience, all of them. I submit to Your will and I believe and I declare: There is none worthy of worship except Allah and Muhammad is His Messenger.”

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Hajj

The Hajj (/hædʒ/;Arabic: حَجّ‎‎ Ḥaǧǧ “pilgrimage”) is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the most holy city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence. It is one of the five pillars of Islam, alongside Shahadah, Salat, Zakat, and Sawm. The Hajj is the largest annual gathering of people in the world. The state of being physically and financially capable of performing the Hajj is called istita’ah, and a Muslim who fulfills this condition is called a mustati. The Hajj is a demonstration of the solidarity of the Muslim people, and their submission to God (Allah). The word Hajj means “to intend a journey”, which connotes both the outward act of a journey and the inward act of intentions.

 

The pilgrimage occurs from the 8th to 12th (or in some cases 13th) of Dhu al-Hijjah, the last month of the Islamic calendar. Because the Islamic calendar is lunar and the Islamic year is about eleven days shorter than the Gregorian year, the Gregorian date of Hajj changes from year to year. Ihram is the name given to the special spiritual state in which pilgrims wear two white sheets of seamless cloth and abstain from certain actions.

The Hajj is associated with the life of Islamic prophet Muhammad from the 7th century, but the ritual of pilgrimage to Mecca is considered by Muslims to stretch back thousands of years to the time of Abraham. During Hajj, pilgrims join processions of hundreds of thousands of people, who simultaneously converge on Mecca for the week of the Hajj, and perform a series of rituals: each person walks counter-clockwise seven times around the Kaaba (the cube-shaped building and the direction of prayer for the Muslims), runs back and forth between the hills of Safa and Marwah, drinks from the Zamzam Well, goes to the plains of Mount Arafat to stand in vigil, spends a night in the plain of Muzdalifa, and performs symbolic stoning of the devil by throwing stones at three pillars. The pilgrims then shave their heads, perform a ritual of animal sacrifice, and celebrate the three-day global festival of Eid al-Adha.

Pilgrims can also go to Mecca to perform the rituals at other times of the year. This is sometimes called the “lesser pilgrimage”, or ‘Umrah (Arabic: عُـمـرَة). However, even if they choose to perform the Umrah, they are still obligated to perform the Hajj at some other point in their lifetime if they have the means to do so, because Umrah is not a substitute for Hajj.

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Pillars Of Islam

The Five Pillars of Islam are five basic rules in Islam that all Muslims should follow.

The Five Pillars are:

The Shahadah (Declaration of faith) – Trusting and understanding the words of the Shahadah. “There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad (SAW) is the final messenger.”

Prayer (Salah) – Praying five times a day, kneeling towards Mecca. There are specific ritualistic movements and prayers that are said.

Charity or alms-giving (Zakat) – Each year a Muslim should give money to charity (Usually 2.5% of their savings). If a person does not have much money, they can do other things instead.

Fasting during the month of Ramadan (Sawm)

A pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) – Muslims should go to Mecca on a pilgrimage. They should do this at least once in their lives. A person does not have to make this pilgrimage if they cannot afford to, or they are physically unable to (Though they can get someone else to go on their behalf).

Shahada: Faith

Shahada is a declaration of faith and trust that professes that there is only one God (Allah) and that Muhammad is God’s messenger. It is a set statement normally recited in Arabic: lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu muḥammadun rasūlu-llāh (لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا الله مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ الله) “There is no god but God (and) Muhammad is the messenger of God.” It is essential to utter it to become a Muslim and to convert to Islam.

Salat: Prayer

Afghan politicians and foreign diplomats praying (making salat) at the U.S. Embassy in Kabul, Afghanistan.

Salat (ṣalāh) is the Islamic prayer. Salat consists of five daily prayers according to the Sunna; the names are according to the prayer times: Fajr (dawn), Dhuhr (noon), ʿAṣr (afternoon), Maghrib (evening), and ʿIshāʾ (night). The Fajr prayer is performed before sunrise, Dhuhr is performed in the midday after the sun has surpassed its highest point, Asr is the evening prayer before sunset, Maghrib is the evening prayer after sunset and Isha is the night prayer. All of these prayers are recited while facing in the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca and form an important aspect of the Muslim Ummah. Muslims must wash before prayer; this washing is called wudu (“purification”). The prayer is accompanied by a series of set positions including; bowing with hands on knees, standing, prostrating and sitting in a special position (not on the heels, nor on the buttocks). A Muslim may perform their prayer anywhere, such as in offices, universities, and fields. However, the mosque is the more preferable place for prayers because the mosque allows for fellowship.

 

Zakāt: Charity

Zakāt or alms-giving is the practice of charitable giving based on accumulated wealth. The word zakāt can be defined as purification and growth because it allows an individual to achieve balance and encourages new growth. The principle of knowing that all things belong to God is essential to purification and growth. Zakāt is obligatory for all Muslims who are able to do so. It is the personal responsibility of each Muslim to ease the economic hardship of others and to strive towards eliminating inequality. Zakāt consists of spending a portion of one’s wealth for the benefit of the poor or needy, like debtors or travelers. A Muslim may also donate more as an act of voluntary charity (sadaqah), rather than to achieve additional divine reward.

There are five principles that should be followed when giving the zakāt:

The giver must declare to God his intention to give the zakāt.

The zakāt must be paid on the day that it is due.

After the offering, the payer must not exaggerate on spending his money more than usual means.

Payment must be in kind. This means if one is wealthy then he or she needs to pay a portion of their income. If a person does not have much money, then they should compensate for it in different ways, such as good deeds and good behavior toward others.

The zakāt must be distributed in the community from which it was taken.

Sawm: Fasting

Muslims traditionally break their fasts in the month of Ramadan with dates (like those offered by this date seller in Kuwait City), as was the recorded practice (Sunnah) of Muhammad.

Three types of fasting (Siyam) are recognized by the Quran: Ritual fasting, fasting as compensation for repentance (both from sura Al-Baqara), and ascetic fasting (from Al-Ahzab).

Ritual fasting is an obligatory act during the month of Ramadan. Muslims must abstain from food and drink from dawn to dusk during this month, and are to be especially mindful of other sins. Fasting is necessary for every Muslim that has reached puberty (unless he/she suffers from a medical condition which prevents him/her from doing so).

 

The fast is meant to allow Muslims to seek nearness and to look for forgiveness from God, to express their gratitude to and dependence on him, atone for their past sins, and to remind them of the needy. During Ramadan, Muslims are also expected to put more effort into following the teachings of Islam by refraining from violence, anger, envy, greed, lust, profane language, gossip and to try to get along with fellow Muslims better. In addition, all obscene and irreligious sights and sounds are to be avoided.

Fasting during Ramadan is obligatory, but is forbidden for several groups for whom it would be very dangerous and excessively problematic. These include pre-pubescent children, those with a medical condition such as diabetes, elderly people, and pregnant or breastfeeding women. Observing fasts is not permitted for menstruating women. Other individuals for whom it is considered acceptable not to fast are those who are ill or traveling. Missing fasts usually must be made up for soon afterward, although the exact requirements vary according to circumstance.

Hajj: Pilgrimage to Mecca

The Hajj is a pilgrimage that occurs during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah to the holy city of Mecca. Every able-bodied Muslim is obliged to make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their life. When the pilgrim is around 10 km (6.2 mi) from Mecca, he/she must dress in Ihram clothing, which consists of two white sheets. Both men and women are required to make the pilgrimage to Mecca. After a Muslim makes the trip to Mecca, he/she is known as a hajj/hajja (one who made the pilgrimage to Mecca). The main rituals of the Hajj include walking seven times around the Kaaba termed Tawaf, touching the Black Stone termed Istilam, traveling seven times between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah termed Sa’yee, and symbolically stoning the Devil in Mina termed Ramee.

The pilgrim, or the haji, is honoured in the Muslim community. Islamic teachers say that the Hajj should be an expression of devotion to God, not a means to gain social standing. The believer should be self-aware and examine their intentions in performing the pilgrimage. This should lead to constant striving for self-improvement. A pilgrimage made at any time other than the Hajj season is called an Umrah, and while not mandatory is strongly recommended. Also, they make a pilgrimage to the holy city of Jerusalem in their alms-giving feast.

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Fasting

Fasting in Islam, known as Sawm (صوم) or siyam صيام (known as ruze or rōza Persian: روزه‎‎ in some Muslim countries), the Arabic words for fasting, is abstaining from eating and drinking. In the terminology of Islamic law, sawm means to abstain from eating and drinking during daylight hours. The observance of sawm during the Islamic holy month of Ramadan is one of the Five Pillars of Islam, but is not confined to that month.

Muslims are prohibited from eating, drinking and engaging in conjugal sexual relationships from dawn (fajr) to sunset (maghrib). Fasting helps Muslims develop self-control, gain a better understanding of God’s gifts and greater compassion towards the deprived. Fasting in Islam involves abstaining from all bodily pleasures between dawn and sunset.. Not only is food forbidden, but also any sexual activity. All things which are regarded as prohibited is even more so in this month, due to its sacredness. Each and every moment during the fast, a person suppresses their passions and desires in loving obedience to God. This consciousness of duty and the spirit of patience helps in strengthening one’s faith. Fasting helps a person gain self-control. A person who abstains from permissible things like food and drink is likely to feel conscious of his sins. A heightened sense of spirituality helps break the habits of lying, staring with lust at the opposite sex, gossiping, and wasting time. Fasting is also viewed as a means of controlling one’s desires (of food, drink and sex) and focusing more on devoting oneself to God.

 

Sawm also carries a significant spiritual meaning. It teaches one the principle of God Consciousness: because when one observes fasting, it is done out of deep love for God and to learn self-restraint. As mention in the Quran:”O you who have believed, decreed upon you is fasting as it was decreed upon those before you that you may become righteous”

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Salat

Salah (“Muslim prayer”, ‏صلاة‎; informally pronounced as ṣalāt; pl. ‏صلوات‎ ṣalawāt), called namāz (Persian: نَماز‎‎) in some languages, is one of the Five Pillars in the faith of Islam and an obligatory religious duty for every Muslim. It is a physical, mental, and spiritual act of worship that is observed five times every day at prescribed times. In this ritual, the worshiper starts standing, bows, prostrates themself, and concludes while sitting on the ground. During each posture, the worshiper recites or reads certain verses, phrases and prayers. The word salah is commonly translated as “prayer” but this definition might be confusing. Muslims use the words “dua” or “supplication” when referring to the common definition of prayers which is “reverent petitions made to God”.

Salah is preceded by ritual ablution. Salah consists of the repetition of a unit called a rakʿah (pl. rakaʿāt) consisting of prescribed actions and words. The number of obligatory (fard) rakaʿāt varies from two to four according to the time of day or other circumstances (such as Friday congregational worship, which has two rakats). Prayer is obligatory for all Muslims except those who are prepubescent, are menstruating, or are experiencing bleeding in the 40 days after childbirth.[2] Every movement in the salah is accompanied by the takbir except the standing between the ruku and sujud, and the ending which has a derivation of the Muslim greeting As-salamu alaykum.

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Naat

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